If you need your passport in a hurry, you may want to apply for a rush passport. Although a regular United States passport takes about six weeks to get, a rush passport will usually be processed and back to you within two weeks. In order to apply for a passport rush, you will still need to complete all of the same tasks needed in order to obtain a regular United States passport. If you need an expedited work Visa from the United States, you will need to find more information about the country to which you are traveling, and various policies on obtaining a work Visa for that country.
To obtain a rush passport, you will need to pay an additional $60 on top of the regular passport fees. You will also need to pay for over-night delivery costs for your passport rush. It is strongly recommended that you pay for two-way over-night delivery fees, so that your package will get to the passport review office overnight, as well as get back to you overnight. On your passport rush envelope you will also want to mark the word, "Expedited".
In addition to the expedited mail for your rush passport service, you will still need to supply all of the documentation needed for a regular passport. You will need to supply proof of citizenship, which can include your birth certificate, old passport, or documentation of when you became a citizen if you were not born in the US. If you don't have a birth certificate, in order to meet US passport requirements you will need to bring a Letter of No Record to the US passport office, which can only be issued by the State. You should also be aware that neither voter registration cards nor army discharge paper will suffice to meet US passport requirements. Along with your application and proof of citizenship, you will also need to bring two passport photos to the US passport office.
If you are applying for a rush passport and are leaving the country in less than two weeks, it may be possible to get your passport in just a couple of days. In addition to all of the documentation needed to apply for a standard passport, you will also need to provide documentation proving that you are leaving the country in two weeks, and that your trip is already paid for. You will usually be able ot use your online ticket as proof of your itinerary. After getting your documents together, you will want to go in-person to your nearest passport agency, after making an appointment over the phone. Although it is possible to get a rush passport through an agency who will get it for you, it doesn't really save much time, since you will still have to give them all of your information.
If you are applying for a passport for the first time, rather than renewing, you will need to go to a passport service station in person. Be sure to let the people at the station know that you are requesting rush passport service. Rush passport service will simply mean that you will, in conjunction with the folks at the passport office, send your passport overnight and to a different address than for regular passports from the passport office. You may also apply for rush visa services, though these can vary depending upon the country you are traveling to.